136 East 57th Street, Suite 1101 New York City, New York 10022 Get a map (212) 308-2440 Search

Emotional Schemas

Emotional Schemas Questionnaire (LESS), 2000 + Scoring Instructions

Emotional Schemas Questionnaire II (LESS II), Revised 2012 + Scoring Instructions

Therapist Schemas Questionnaire

Books, Articles, Chapters, Presentations on Emotional Schemas:


  • Dr. Leahy's workshop on emotional schema therapy at the 2017 European Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia can be viewed here and here.
  • May 9, 2016: Dr. Leahy on Emotional Schema Therapy and The Evolution and Future of Cognitive Therapy. listen to the interview here
  • Leahy, R. L. (2015). Emotional Schema Therapy. Guilford Press: New York.     
  • Leahy, R. L., Tirch, D., Napolitano, L. A. (2011). Emotion Regulation in Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. Guilford Press: New York.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2012). Introduction: Emotional schemas, emotion regulation, and psychopathology.International Journal of Cognitive Therapy5(4), 359-361.
  • Leahy, R. L., Tirch, D. D., & Melwani, P. S. (2012). Processes underlying depression: Risk aversion, emotional schemas, and psychological flexibility.International Journal of Cognitive Therapy5(4), 362-379.
  • Tirch, D. D., Leahy, R. L., Silberstein, L. R., & Melwani, P. S. (2012). Emotional schemas, psychological flexibility, and anxiety: The role of flexible response patterns to anxious arousal. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy5(4), 380-391.
  • Silberstein, L., Tirch, D., Leahy, R. L., & McGinn, L. (2012). Mindfulness, psychological flexibility, and emotional schemas. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy5(4), 406-419.
  • Leahy, R.L. (in press) Emotional Schema Therapy. In John Livesley, Giancarlo Dimmagio, and John Clarkin (eds.) Integrated Treatment for Personality Disorders. Guilford: New York.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2011). Emotional Schema Therapy: A Bridge over Troubled Waters. In J. Herbert & E. Forman, Acceptance and Mindfulness in Cognitive Behavior Therapy.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2010). Personal Schemas in the Negotiation Process: A Cognitive Therapy Approach. In M. Galluccio & F. Aquilar (Eds.), Psychological and political strategies for peace negotiation: A cognitive approach. London: Springer.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2010). Emotional Schemas in Treatment Resistant Anxiety. In D. Sookman & R. L. Leahy, Treatment Resistant Anxiety Disorders: Resolving Impasses to Symptom Remission (pp. 135-160). New York: Routledge.
  • Clark, D. A., Hollifield, M., Leahy, R. L., & Beck, J. S. (2009). Theory of cognitive therapy. In G. O. Gabbard (Ed.), Textbook of psychotherapeutic treatments (pp. 165-200). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2009). Resistance: An Emotional Schema Therapy (EST) Approach. In G. Simos, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: A Guide for the Practising Clinician (Vol. 2, pp. 187-204). New York: Routledge.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2007). Emotional Schemas and Self-Help: Homework Compliance and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice14(3), 297-302.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2007). Emotional Schemas and Resistance to Change in Anxiety DisordersCognitive and Behavioral Practice14, 36-45.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2007). Schematic Mismatch in the Therapeutic Relationship: A Social-Cognitive Model. In P. Gilbert & R. L. Leahy, The Therapeutic Relationship in the Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapies (pp. 229-254). New York: Routledge.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2002). A Model of Emotional Schemas. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice9, 177-190.
  • Batmaz, S., & Özdel, K. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale-II. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry/Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 16(1), 23-30.  
  • Batmaz, S., Kaymak, S. U., Kocbiyik, S., & Turkcapar, M. H. (2014). Metacognitions and emotional schemas: a new cognitive perspective for the distinction between unipolar and bipolar depression. Comprehensive psychiatry, 55(7), 1546-1555. 
  • Daneshmandi, S., Izadikhah, Z., Kazemi, H., & Mehrabi, H. (2014). The effectiveness of emotional schema therapy on emotional schemas of female victims of child abuse and neglect. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, 22(5), 1481-1494. 
  • Edwards, E. R., Micek, A., Mottarella, K., & Wupperman, P. Emotion ideology mediates effects of risk factors on alexithymia development. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (35)3, 1-24.
  • Naderi, Y., Moradi, A., Hasani, J., & Noohi, S. (2015). Effectiveness of emotional schema therapy on cognitive emotion regulation strategies of combat-related post traumatic stress disorder veterans. Iranian Journal of War and Public Health, 7(3), 147-155. 
  • Rezaee, M., Ghazanfari, F., & Reazee, F. (2016). Effectiveness of emotional schema therapy on severity of depression and rumination in people with major depressive disorder. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, 24(1), 41-54.
  • Sirota, N., Moskovchenko, D., Yaltonsky, V., Kochetkov, Y., Yaltonskaya, A. (2013). Psychodiagnostics of emotional schemas: the results of transcultural adaptation and assessment of psychometric properties of Russian Version of Leahy Emotional Schema Scale II (LESS II_RUS). VM Bekhterev review of psychiatry and medical psychology, 77 (1), 66-71.
  • Khaleghi, M., Leahy, R. L., Akbari, E., Mohammadkhani, S., Hasani, J., & Tayyebi, A. (2017). Emotional Schema Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Single-Subject Design. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 10(4), 269-282. 
  • Leahy, R. L. (2012). Leahy Emotional Schema Scale II (LESS II). Unpublished manuscript, American Institute for Cognitive Therapy. 
  • Leahy, R. L., Tirch, D. D., & Melwani, P. S. (2012). Processes underlying depression: Risk aversion, emotional schemas, and psychological flexibility. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(4), 362-379. 
  • Silberstein, L. R., Tirch, D. D., Leahy, R. L., & McGinn, L. (2012). Mindfulness, psychological flexibility and emotional schemas. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(4), 406-419. 
  • Tirch, D. D., Leahy, R. L., Silberstein, L. R., & Melwani, P. S. (2012). Emotional schemas, psychological flexibility, and anxiety: The role of flexible response patterns to anxious arousal. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(4), 380-391. 
  • Westphal, M., Leahy, R. L., Pala, A. N., & Wupperman, P. (2016). Self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediate the effects of parental indifference on psychopathology. Psychiatry Research, 242, 186-191. 
  • Moskovchenko et al (2016). Psychodiagnostics of emotional schemas: the results of transcultural adaptation and assessment of psychometric properties of Russian Version of LESS II


LESS in Different Languages: